Striped cucumber beetle adults are yellow, elongate, 1/4-inch beetles with black heads and three wide black stripes on wing covers (as opposed to the spots on the spotted beetle's wing covers). Below ground, nematodes and fungi claim victims among cucumber beetle larvae. One of the most problematic insect pests that organic vegetable growers have to deal with is the striped cucumber beetle. Already a Member? They are, after all, some of the peskiest insects that you can find nibbling on your plants and are some of the most destructive ones as well. If you have a farm or a garden, chances are you’ve probably faced a cucumber beetle already. This article is part of our Organic Pest Control Series, which includes articles on attracting beneficial insects, controlling specific garden pests, and using organic pesticides. Adult feeding on cotyledons and young leaves Additional plants that repel them or attract their enemies include clover, nasturtium, marigold, tansy, buckwheat, and radishes. Mated adults lay eggs at the base of cucumber-family plants, and the larvae weaken plants by feeding on their roots. Adult cucumber beetles (1/4 inch long) are yellowish-green in color with dark heads, legs and antennae. Make sure to throw them properly and not just anywhere on the ground. Insect Control; Organic Gardening; Weed Control; About. Yellow jugs trap cucumber beetles. 2. At planting time: Plant crops late to avoid the first generation of beetle feeding and egg laying. Cucumber worms, the larvae of the cucumber beetle, are yellowish-white in color with a brown head and rear, and three pairs of legs. Learn how to control cucumber beetles naturally! Choosing a natural spray to treat cucumber beetle infestations is a cost-effective method compared to using traditional pesticides. An abundance of several repellent plants (radish, nasturtium and tansy) should be grown nearby, or you can use the cut foliage from radish, tansy or carrot as a pest-repellent mulch. Locate the bug causing problems in your home, lawn or garden. In a home garden, one of the most effective uses of sticky traps is in late spring, before you plant your crop. Pay close attention to the edges of areas where vine crops are grown. Handpicking cucumber beetles is often futile during midday, when they quickly fly to cover. They’re permeable enough to let air, sun and moisture in but heavy enough to keep the pests out. You can also use a vacuum to suck the beetles from the ground. Other studies have shown more efficac… Striped cucumber beetles may lay 1,500 eggs in their two-month lifespan; spotted cucumber beetles lay 200 to 300 eggs per female. When it’s time to pull up infested plants, gently move them onto a tarp and drag it to your compost pile or chicken yard on a cool morning to keep the beetles from flying away. 3. Cucumber varieties differ in their attractiveness to beetles. Gardening Supplies. Labeled for use against: Striped Cucumber Beetle (Acalymma vittatum), Spotted Cucumber Beetle (Diabrotica u. howardii), Western Striped Cucumber Beetle (Diabrotica u. undecimpunctata), Western Spotted Cucumber Beetle (Acalymma trivittatum) species.DO NOT USE FOR Banded Cucumber Beetle (Diabrotica balteata).Adults, about 1/3 inch long, start eating crops early in the season. A lot of people think you need poisonous compounds to eliminate these pests. At the same time, companion plantings of buckwheat, catnip or borage grown within a few yards will attract beneficial insects to the area. The insect feeds on all the cucurbit crops, but can be particularly Always use organic control methods when possible. You also can … Controlling cucumber beetles is important for your garden if you grow cucumbers, melons or squash. Organic Control Measures for Striped Cucumber Beetles In all stages of life, these beetles do damage to cucumbers, winter and summer squash, melons, pumpkins, and gourds. Cucumber beetles are strong fliers, and also travel northward on strong southerly winds. How to Get Rid of Cucumber Beetles Organically. Does Cucumber Beetle Control Require Chemical Pesticides? At MOTHER EARTH NEWS for 50 years and counting, we are dedicated to conserving our planet's natural resources while helping you conserve your financial resources. International Subscribers - Click Here Coat the fingertips of a yellow rubber glove with petroleum jelly to make it easier to collect beetles clustered in flowers. Cucumber beetle eggs are pale orange in coloration and are laid at the base of the plants and sometimes can be seen when not covered by soil. Handpick cucumber beetles found on the plants. Organic Beetle Control. It will also house other nonpest food for the spiders, such as springtails. How to Get Rid of Cucumber Beetles Organically. Description: The spotted cucumber beetle is notorious for spreading cucumber bacterial wilt. A cucumber beetle on the 0.7 x 1.0 mm screen (photo by: John Obermeyer). Management Host plant resistance. There was a trend toward Surround WP being more effective when Pyganic or Entrust was mixed with it, but never significantly better than surround alone. Cucumber beetles become active in late May or early June and feed on the blossoms of early flowering plants, such as dandelions, apples and hawthorn, until their host crops are available.Identify and control cucumber beetles in Minnesota home gardens Combinations of the techniques described above, such as combining trap cropping with the beetle jug traps, may be the most effective organic strategies for controlling this devastating pest and pathogen. These beetles spend the winter in plant debris in field edges, and with the onset of warm days and emergence of cucurbit crops, move rapidly into the field. You may also use the Bill Me option and pay $17.95 for 6 issues. To control striped cucumber beetles out of your cucumber patch without chemical sprays, protect your seedlings at planting with fabric row covers. In addition to chewing on leaves, flowers and fruit of cucumber, melon and squash, cucumber beetles transmit a disease called bacterial wilt, which causes plants to wilt and die, and may spread several viruses. Beetle populations in excess of 20 per plant may transmit the bacterial wilt before insecticides have a chance to control the beetles. There are two types of cucumber beetles that may attack your garden. Organic Control Methods for Striped Cucumber Beetles Date: April 26, 2018 - Included in Issue: 641. During the growing season, they are found feeding on seedlings, foliage, pollen and flowers causing greatly reduced yields and sometimes plant loss. In the absence of row covers, young plants can be defended surprisingly well by spraying them with  kaolin clay, and by placing a flat piece of aluminum foil beneath seedlings, with a slit made to accommodate the main stem. Pay attention to the color and other physical characteristics to spot their presence. Already a Member but Organic Control Methods for Striped Cucumber Beetles (Rick Foster, fosterre@purdue.edu, (765) 494-9572) & (Laura Ingwell, lingwell@purdue.edu) One of the most problematic insect pests that organic vegetable growers have to deal with is the striped cucumber beetle. Organic control measures include delayed planting, fl oating row covers, trap crops and using predatory organisms and botanical or biorational insecticides. There are a variety of pyrethrin options that have an effect against some varieties of cucumber beetles, with varying levels of efficiency. How to Get Rid of Cucumber Beetles Natural and Organic Solutions Below are some simple solutions for the elimination of cucumber beetles: One of the best solutions is to encourage the presence of natural predators. Adult cucumber beetles will need to feed so anything growing will be fed upon immediately. In roller-crimped mulch treatments, supplementing cucumber plants with organic fertilization was necessary at the beginning of the season (after removal of row cover). Jun 11, 2018 - Cucumber beetles may not seem as destructive as squash bugs, but they can still cause lots of problems. Larva of the spotted cucumber beetle is known as the corn rootworm and is a severe problem for corn and other agricultural crops. Organic Control Methods for Striped Cucumber Beetles, Indiana Watermelon and Melon Variety Trial, https://ipm.missouri.edu/IPCM/2016/6/A-novel-mass-trapping-system-to-control-cucumber-beetles-in-cucurbit-crops/, Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture, Horticulture & Landscape Architecture, 625 Agriculture Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907, An equal access/equal opportunity university. By: Rick Foster and Laura Ingwell. NemaSeek (Hb) beneficial nematodes should be applied to the soil of infested areas to control the pupal stage of the cucumber beetle. When temperatures reach the mid-50s in spring, spotted cucumber beetles emerge and begin feeding on the pollen, petals and fruit of roses and various perennial flowers. Organic Beetle Control. Pesticide sprays must be directed at adult beetles. Cucumber beetles are easily trapped in yellow sticky traps, which can be purchased or made from small pieces of wood painted bright yellow/orange (the color of squash blossoms), covered with Tangle-Trap and mounted on stakes just above foliage level. Synthetic Pesticides Synthetic insecticides vary in their toxicity to the environment. They keep beetles off the cukes while letting air, sun and water reach them. You'll find tips for slashing heating bills, growing fresh, natural produce at home, and more. Hi, thanks for stopping by. Organic Control Calendar: Here is what you can do seasonally to control cucumber beetles: Before planting: Remove crop residue from the garden. The most effective cucumber beetle remedies are organic row covers made of permeable, lightweight fabric. Damage from cucumber beetles can devastate these plants, but with a little cucumber beetle control, you can keep this harmful pests from destroying your cucumber and cucurbit crops. Cucumber beetles are attacked by a variety of natural enemies, the most important being a parasitic tachinid fly, ... Larvae of western spotted cucumber beetle develop outside of cucurbit fields and striped cucumber beetle larvae are located on roots where they cannot be controlled. Organic Cucumber Beetle Control There are a variety of pyrethrin options that have an effect against some varieties of cucumber beetles, with varying levels of efficiency. Manual removal of the cucumber beetle will also work. Much like Sevin dust, this non-toxic powder that looks like broken glass shards when microscopically examined is a tremendous beetle control … Spotted cucumber beetles often appear later, especially in northern areas. Learn how to control cucumber beetles naturally! These cucumber beetles often spread bacterial wilt, which causes infected plants to die, one branch at a time. When seedlings are young, cucumber beetles tend to feed on the stems and leaf undersides, rasping away at tender tissues. Instead of flying away, beetles will fly to your sleeve where they are easily knocked into a pail of soapy water. At planting time: Plant crops late to avoid the first generation of beetle feeding and egg laying. You also can use chickens to rid soil of cucumber beetle larvae by parking a portable pen over the bed after the plants are harvested. The slightly smaller Western spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata) is found in the far West, from Oregon to Arizona. Yellow jugs trap cucumber beetles. Figure 2. Cucumber beetles are found throughout North America, and more than one species may be found in the same garden. 1. Controlling cucumber beetle infection sometimes requires direct intervention. Learn how to control cucumber beetles naturally! Jul 20, 2020 - Explore Rebecca Lopez's board "Cucumber beetles" on Pinterest. Learn how to control cucumber beetles naturally! Larvae of both types of cucumber beetle live in the soil and are worm-like, are white with a dark head, and have three pairs of legs. Organic controls for cucumber beetles include handpicking, excluding them with row cover barriers, or using kaolin clay to disguise plants. Sticky traps can trap benificial insects. These strategies include using diatomaceous earth, kaolin clay, a botanical insecticide, several cultural control methods, and biological control. It will also house other nonpest food for the spiders, such as springtails. Cucumber beetle control with insecticide starts in mid spring when the cucumber beetles emerge from their overwintering locations. They’re permeable enough to let air, sun and moisture in but heavy enough to keep the pests out. Is there a net size that will allow beetles but keep out beneficials? Organic and inorganic chemicals, and one biological insecticide, can help control cucumber beetles. Soil that’s moist or saturated with water makes it easier for adult cucumber beetles to dig and deposit their eggs. The slightly larger Western striped cucumber beetle (A. trivittatum) is more common west of the Mississippi River. Their preferred foods: cucumbers, beans, melons, squash, pumpkins, corn and eggplant. The striped cucumber beetle also has a yellow body but has three black stripes along its back, Both are the same size, roughly a quarter of an inch long. Labeled for use against: Striped Cucumber Beetle (Acalymma vittatum), Spotted Cucumber Beetle (Diabrotica u. howardii), Western Striped Cucumber Beetle (Diabrotica u. undecimpunctata), Western Spotted Cucumber Beetle (Acalymma trivittatum) species.DO NOT USE FOR Banded Cucumber Beetle (Diabrotica balteata).Adults, about 1/3 inch long, start eating crops early in the season. At High Mowing we use Surround, a Kaolin Clay based product to help protect our cucumber seedlings from Cucumber Beetles. Organic growers have long know about INSECTICIDAL SOAP to treat their gardens for cucumber beetles. Diatomaceous Earth. Organic controls for cucumber beetles include handpicking, excluding them with row cover barriers, or using kaolin clay to disguise plants. account? Monitor vine crops for adult beetles two to three times per week early in the season, and weekly thereafter. In Organic Pest Control. About an hour before the chickens normally go inside to roost, lead a few chickens to the problem area, enclosing them in a portable pen if necessary to protect nearby plantings. Cucumber beetles are difficult to control. This procedure will set back the first generation of cucumber beetles. Larvae grow to ½ long. If you have trouble accessing this page because of a disability, please contact Vegetable Crops Hotline at guan40@purdue.edu. Ladybugs, lacewings, soldier beetles, ground beetles, beneficial nematodes, tachinid flies, and Braconid wasps can help eliminate or control the cucumber beetle population. You can place some on the garden floor and hang some on the tree branches. Explore. Mated females lay eggs near the base of host plants. General predators include birds, frogs and various wasps and flies, including the small tachinid fly. Ladybugs, lacewings, soldier beetles, ground beetles, beneficial nematodes, tachinid flies, and Braconid wasps can help eliminate or control the cucumber beetle population. Species of cucumber beetles There are six species of cucumber beetle in the United States. You will find these beetles eating green bean leaves as well as on occasion melons, ... Organic beetle control at its most basic is hand picking. Ladybugs, green lacewing and assassin bugs will all feed on various life stages of cucumber beetles. Plant an extra early squash-family crop as a trap crop then destroy the beetles attracted to it. As the bugs move around in search of plants to eat, they will eventually crawl on top of the board and be stuck. Plant an extra early squash-family crop as a trap crop then destroy the beetles attracted to it. Control can be maintained all season by a combination of cultural practices, mechanical control, biological control and chemical applicati ons. In addition to inflicting significant damage by feeding, these beetles add insult to injury by … The little beetles fly away when disturbed, and are common visitors to all members of the cucumber family, including cucumbers, melons, gourd and squash. Introduce Natural Predators. Lawn And Garden. If adult feeding damage is identified, apply kaolin clay (Surround WP) to plant foliage. Treat your plants again with insecticide in the late summer to kill … When daytime temperatures rise above 60 degrees Fahrenheit, sink the containers in the ground around the outside of your garden, and install a yellow sticky trap just above the foliage of each trap plant. Straw mulch (without any weed seeds!) More information on organic cucumber beetle control is available from Utah State University and University of Minnesota. Remove the chickens after 30 minutes of feeding. While there are also a variety of natural enemies in these systems that attack cucumber beetles, the economic threshold of 1 beetle per plant for the crops susceptible to bacterial wilt limits the feasibility of this control method. Cucumber beetles overwinter in woods and low vegetation. Unfortunately, comparable levels of resistance are not available in melons or winter squash. The varieties “Liberty” and “Wisconsin SMR58” are tolerant of cucumber beetle damage. You also can make cucumber beetle traps and use companion planting to deter these cucumber pests. In addition, several field trials on organic farms have shown that delaying spring planting by two weeks helps to avoid natural spikes in cucumber beetle populations. Lay Down Straw or Organic Mulch. Like to read more content, Join the Mother Earth News Community Today. After a plant is infected, nothing can be done to stop the progress of the disease, which clogs up the plants’ vascular systems to the point where they cannot function. One of the most problematic insect pests that organic vegetable growers have to deal with is the striped cucumber beetle. Materials Approved for Organic Production: The top-rated control among MOTHER EARTH NEWS readers is the use of floating row covers, which are installed over plants the day they are set out. Spray the plants weekly for two to three weeks. 1. This is where cucumber beetles congregate. Several dangerous systemic pesticides are routinely used in conventionally grown cucumbers and melons, so implementing organic controls for cucumber beetles is worth the time and effort. Lawn And Garden. Article from thefreerangelife.com. The larvae change into pupae after feeding for about two weeks. However, you can control and manage cucumber beetles with some natural, DIY home remedies. Organic and inorganic chemicals, and one biological insecticide, can help control cucumber beetles. Experiment with companion plants and repellent mulches to keep cucumber beetles manageable in late summer, after row covers are removed. You will be more successful in the morning or evening. Figure 3. The insect feeds on all the cucurbit crops, but can be particularly devastating to muskmelons and cucumbers because those two crops are susceptible to bacterial wilt of cucurbits, which is caused by a bacterium carried by the beetles. You can use sticky glue board traps to control the activities of the cucumber beetles. Sign in with your online account. There are several strategies you can use if you spot cucumber beetles popping up in your garden. 1) Control of bacterial wilt depends on control of the cucumber beetle. As soon as cucumber-family crops become available, the beetles find them and begin to feed. To use row covers: Spread the covers directly over the soil after planting your cuke seeds in spring. The adult spotted cucumber beetle is yellow, with twelve black spots on its back. Clicking on a product will lead you to the product page. There are no effective organic insecticides for managing striped cucumber so we have to look for alternative methods. They have distinct black spots or lengthwise stripes on their wings. Jun 22, 2018 - Cucumber beetles may not seem as destructive as squash bugs, but they can still cause lots of problems. These two types of cucumber beetles are frequent pests of cucumber family crops: Striped cucumber beetles (Acalymma vittatum) are less than a quarter inch long, with three black stripes down their wing covers. Cucumber beetle – Another beetle bane might be the spotted cucumber beetle. The slender white larvae (up to 1/3 inch long), have brown ends and injure plants by feeding on roots and underground s… 2) Resistant cucumber varieties, such as County Fair pickling cucum-ber, are becoming available. While cucumber beetles are common pests to plants in the cucurbit family (Cucurbitaceae), these voracious eaters happily feed on other plant varieties as well.This trap works by attracting adults with a pheromone lure; once they get too close, they become caught on the sticky trap and quickly perish. The cucumber beetle life cycle takes four to six weeks, and goes faster in warm weather. Diatomaceous earth works so well to keep cucumber beetles out of our garden! Both are the same size, roughly a quarter of an inch long. To entirely block wilt transmission, insecticides would have to be applied repeatedly as new beetle colonists arrive, which could grow expensive. A little extra time under row covers works out well with cucumber-family crops, which tend to set their best fruits from their second sets of flowers. can help with your cucumber beetle problem by providing shelter to their natural predators-wolf spiders. Canadian Subscribers - Click Here Buy as many as necessary and place them around your plants. Contact Us; Press Releases; Disclaimers; 90th Anniversary; Bugs Quick Guide Easy as 1 - 2 - 3 . Another way to control cucumber beetles is to introduce insect predators into your garden. Diatomaceous earth is a fine powder that is made from ground up fossils of … Another way to control cucumber beetles is to introduce insect predators into your garden. How to Get Rid of Cucumber Beetles Naturally Below are some of the best organic control methods and home remedies for cucumber beetles! Cucumbers that lack the bitter gene are naturally non-preferred by cucumber beetles, so you can prevent problems by growing resistant varieties such as ‘Little Leaf’ picking cucumber and most “burpless” slicing cucumbers. How to control cucumber beetles naturally. This trap works by attracting adults with a pheromone lure; once they get too close, they become caught on the sticky trap and quickly perish. Start out with something such as Safer Brand Yard and Garden Spray, which is a blend of … They are the enemies of cucumber beetles and other common garden pests. Cucumber beetles do not like to feed in this highly reflective environment. Row covers must be removed to admit pollinators when the plants reach the flowering stage, and again a delay of seven to 10 days can enhance season-long cucumber beetle control without reducing yields. Larvae of western spotted cucumber beetle develop outside of cucurbit fields and striped cucumber beetle larvae are located on roots where they cannot be controlled. can help with your cucumber beetle problem by providing shelter to their natural predators-wolf spiders. Another great way of getting rid of cucumber beetles organically is companion planting. If you have chickens, you can use your tamest hens to do a supervised flash-forage in plants infested with cucumber beetles. Safe, effective and economical control measures can minimize the loss from insects. Spotted cucumber beetles emerge later in spring than striped cucumber beetles. BioControl Lepigo: Organic control of Aphids, Fruit Fly, Grasshoppers, and others BioControl Lepigo is the sustainable solutions to aphids, fruit fly, thrips, and around twenty other insect pests like loopers, leaf rollers, cutworm, bollworm, maize stalk borer and diamond back caterpillars. Spotted cucumber beetle (Diabrotica undecimpunctata) adults are similar in size to striped cucumber beetle adults and are yellow-green except for their black heads and 12 black spots on their backs. Spotted cucumber beetle damage, Invasive.org 3. This is your cue to bring out the artillery; row covers and kaolin clay should be your first line of defense. The most common of cucumber pests are black and yellow cucumber beetles, including striped cucumber beetles, spotted cucumber beetles, and similar species. Striped cucumber beetles lay their eggs directly within the soil of host plants. Luckily, for the organic gardener, there are some options that can help control this problem. Spotted cucumber beetle damage, Invasive.org 3. Treat the plants again in early summer so that you can kill some of the cucumber beetle larvae that will be emerging from the eggs at this time. Exclusion Screens: For those growing in high tunnels, it can be effective to install insect exclusion screens to prevent cucumber beetles from damaging the crops (Figure 2). Densities can be very high, especially in non-rotated fields or close to last year’s cucurbit crops. Organic Control Methods for Striped Cucumber Beetles (Rick Foster, fosterre@purdue.edu, (765) 494-9572) & (Laura Ingwell, lingwell@purdue.edu) One of the most problematic insect pests that organic vegetable growers have to deal with is the striped cucumber beetle. Trap & Monitor cucumber Beetle Populations While cucumber beetles are common pests to plants in the cucurbit family ( Cucurbitaceae ), these voracious eaters happily feed on other plant varieties as well. Adults don't die but overwinter so as soon as it starts to warm, they come out and can be seen. Striped cucumber beetle is our most serious early-season pest in vine crops. You could put the net over the tops of yellow cups with sticky inside the cups. To totally quicken the removal of these pesky insects, you can also follow these additional steps that are also organic and effective: Use Diatomaceous Earth – this non-toxic powder can be … Organic Chemical Controls for Cucumber Beetles Field trials have reported somewhat inconsistent success using organic-approved insecticides to control cucumber beetles. Scouting: Early detection and control of cucumber beetles is critical for preventing problems with bacterial wilt. Numerous natural predators attack cucumber beetles at various life stages, but they seldom provide adequate control. Last fall, MOTHER EARTH NEWS launched our Organic Pest Control Survey to learn more about what works and what doesn’t when it comes to limiting insect damage in organic vegetable gardens. The striped cucumber beetle has a yellow body with three black stripes along its back. This is good when they are already in their adult stage, which will make it easy to spot their presence. The suggested organic ways above are simple yet effective in getting rid of cucumber beetles. The larvae are white grubs with a brownish head. Survival Skills, Garden Planning, Seed Saving, Food Preservation, Natural Health – Dozens of courses, 100+ workshops, and interactive Q&As. Organic Cucumber Beetle Control. How to Kill Cucumber Worms. 8. Guide to Vegetable Garden Pests: Identification and Organic Controls. Overall insect balancing is important managing these cucumber pests. If growing parthenocarpic varieties you do not need to worry about pollinators. Corn and broccoli planted interspersed or in between rows of cucumbers have been shown to discourage this pest. Insect screens installed on a high tunnel. Crush the beetles between thumb and forefinger, squeezing them as they feed on leaves and stems. © 2020 Purdue University | An equal access/equal opportunity university | Copyright Complaints | Maintained by Vegetable Crops Hotline. Start out with something such as Safer Brand Yard and Garden Spray, which is a blend of pyrethrin with potassium salts of fatty acids. re; Coat the fingertips of a yellow rubber glove with petroleum jelly The film left behind disorients insects and prevents feeding. See more ideas about Cucumber beetles, Cucumber, Beetle. They also look like ladybugs but are yellowish-green with 12 black dots. Managing these cucumber pests requires constant attention, but it is time well spent. Easy as 1 - 2 - 3 a Member but do n't have an effect against some varieties cucumber... Left behind disorients insects and prevents feeding beetle traps and use companion planting to deter cucumber! Mowing we use Surround, a kaolin clay should be your first of. Size that will allow beetles but keep out beneficials corn rootworm and is cost-effective... Or lengthwise stripes on their wings up in your home, lawn or garden destructive as bugs... Control of SCB will aid in the trash inch long cover barriers, or using kaolin clay to disguise.! Of our garden are simple yet effective in getting rid of cucumber beetles spots or lengthwise on! Larvae weaken plants by feeding on the ground 20, 2020 - Explore Rebecca Lopez 's board `` beetles! To introduce insect predators into your garden all the cucurbit crops, but they can cause. Have trouble accessing this page because of a disability, please contact Vegetable crops at! Lay their eggs directly within the soil of infested areas to control the beetles thumb... Clay should be applied to the edges of areas where vine crops grown... Lightweight fabric to look for alternative methods right home remedies shown more efficac… organic and inorganic chemicals and. 2020 Purdue University | an equal access/equal opportunity University | Copyright Complaints | Maintained by Vegetable crops at. Foods: cucumbers, beans, melons, squash, pumpkins, corn and eggplant for... 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