Unlike the spiritual leaders, the authority of the Shaykh al-ʻAql is limited to the country he is elected in, though in some instances spiritual leaders are elected to this position. The relationship between the Druze and Christians has been characterized by harmony and coexistence,[95][96][97][98] with amicable relations between the two groups prevailing throughout history, with the exception of some periods, including 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war. It appeared in the Levant during the reign of Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, (996 - 1021). [21][22][23][24][25] It is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the teachings of Hamza ibn Ali ibn Ahmad and the sixth Fatimid caliph, al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, and Ancient Greek philosophers such as Plato, Aristotle, Pythagoras, and Zeno of Citium. from God. [168] The Druze have frequently experienced persecution by different Muslim regimes such as the Shia Fatimid Caliphate,[50][169] Mamluk,[86] Sunni Ottoman Empire,[170][93] and Egypt Eyalet. It is obligatory to kill their scholars and religious figures so that they do not misguide others",[181] which in that setting would have legitimized violence against them as apostates. The Druze religion is based principally on reincarnation. Some scholars claim that the Biblical Jethro could not have been the father/founder of the Druze religion (about 1015 CE) as the Biblical Jethro lived about 1400 BCE, being somewhat older than Moses.That date greatly predates the founding of Islam related religions (about 610 CE) by thousands of years. [28] The Druze faith incorporates elements of Isma'ilism, a branch of Shia Islam,[29] Gnosticism,[30][31] Christianity,[30][31] Zoroastrianism,[32][33] Buddhism,[34][35] Hinduism,[36][37] Neoplatonism,[30][31] Pythagoreanism,[36][37] and other philosophies and beliefs, creating a distinct and secretive theology based on an esoteric interpretation of scripture, which emphasises the role of the mind and truthfulness. Druze reject polygamy, believe in reincarnation, and are not obliged to observe most of the religious rituals. The sanguinary feuds between these two factions depleted, in course of time, the manhood of the Lebanon and ended in the decisive battle of Ain Dara in 1711, which resulted in the utter defeat of the Yemenite party. [83], In 1043, Bahāʼ al-Din declared that the sect would no longer accept new adherents, and since that time, proselytism has been prohibited. [citation needed], Al-Hakim was replaced by his underage son, ʻAlī al-Zahir. [104], Although most Druze no longer consider themselves Muslim, Al Azhar of Egypt recognized them in 1959 as one of the Islamic sects in the Al-Azhar Shia Fatwa due to a political reasons, as Gamal Abdel Nasser saw it as a tool to spread his appeal and influence across the entire Arab world. [130], Reincarnation is a paramount principle in the Druze faith. [231] While compared to other Israeli Christians and Muslims, Druze place less emphasis on Arab identity and self-identify more as Israeli. [20] Jethro of Midian is considered an ancestor of the Druze, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet. Be ye certain that the Prince of Believers hath given unto you free will, and hath spared you the trouble of disguising and concealing your true beliefs, so that when ye work ye may keep your deeds pure for God. [126] The number of Druze parliament members usually exceeds their proportion in the Israeli population, and they are integrated within several political parties. [241], The researchers noted that the Druze villages contained a striking range of high frequency and high diversity of the X haplogroup, suggesting that this population provides a glimpse into the past genetic landscape of the Near East at a time when the X haplogroup was more prevalent. [86][page needed], The relationship between the Druze and Christians has been characterized by harmony and coexistence,[95][96][97][98] with amicable relations between the two groups prevailing throughout history, with the exception of some periods, including 1860 Mount Lebanon civil war. 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There is neither "how", "when", nor "where" about him; he is incomprehensible. [26][27], The Epistles of Wisdom is the foundational text of the Druze faith. hide. Intent to Get a COVID-19 Vaccine Rises to 60% as Confidence in Research and Development Process Increases. Both religions venerated Shuaib and Muhammad: Shuaib is revered as the chief prophet in the Druze religion, and in the Islam he is considered a prophet of God. The Ma'an tribe, which superseded the Tanukhs and produced the greatest Druze hero, Fakhr-al-Din, had the same traditional origin. One small DNA study has shown that Israeli Druze are remarkable for the high frequency (35%) of males who carry the Y-chromosomal haplogroup L (though some Afshar village[dubious – discuss] and the Raqqa Syrians have even more), which is otherwise uncommon in the Mideast (Shen et al. [39], Even though the faith originally developed out of Isma'ilism, Druze do not identify as Muslims. Religion Quiz Random Religion or Islam Quiz Seven Prophets of the Druze Quiz Stats. [223][224][225], During the British Mandate for Palestine, the Druze did not embrace the rising Arab nationalism of the time or participate in violent confrontations. The clashes ranged from Antioch to Alexandria, where tens of thousands of Druze were slaughtered by the Fatimid army,[50] "this mass persecution known by the Druze as the period of the mihna". They demanded to keep their autonomous administration and many political privileges accorded them by the French and sought generous economic assistance from the newly independent government. [221][222] During the Druze revolt against the rule of Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, the Jewish community in Safad was attacked by Druze rebels in early July 1838, the violence against the Jews included plundering their homes and desecrating their synagogues. Religions of the world The Druze (a.k.a. [73] Al-Darazi wrote a book laying out this doctrine. [63] He came to Fatimid Egypt in 1014 or 1016[63] and assembled a group of scholars and leaders from across the world to establish the Unitarian movement. They make up roughly 2% of the country’s population and most live in the northern regions of the Galilee, Carmel and the Golan Heights. About seven-in-ten Druze (72%) say their religious identity is very important to them. However, al-Darazi ignored Hamza's warnings and continued to challenge the Imam. It shall thus become a rule to mankind; and Divine Wisdom shall prevail for all the days to come. Also called the Druse, Duruz, Duroz, and the Tawhid faith, there are about 750,000-800,000 of them today, primarily in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel. In the Hebrew Bible Jethro was Moses' father-in-law, a Kenite shepherd and priest of Midian,[235] Jethro of Midian is considered an ancestor of Druze, who revere him as their spiritual founder and chief prophet. The holy places and shrines of the Druze are scattered in various villages, in places where they are protected and cared for. The head is the Jabal Druze, if I crush the head the serpent will die" (Seale 1963:132). For Druze in particular, this lack of religious intermarriage may also be a reflection of the community’s history. About 2% of the Druze population are also scattered within other countries in the Middle East. Beirut and Sidon, which Fakhr-al-Din II beautified, still bear traces of his benign rule. The Druzite community in Lebanon played an important role in the formation of the modern state of Lebanon,[117] and even though they are a minority they play an important role in the Lebanese political scene. They are said to have descended from Jethro, the priest of Midian who was Moses’ father-in-law (Exodus 18:1), and they recognize him as their principal prophet and founder of their religion. These messengers were sent out with the Druze epistles and took written vows from believers, whose souls are thought to still exist in the Druze of today. The civil war was not therefore a religious war,[citation needed] except in Damascus, where it spread and where the vastly non-Druze population was anti-Christian. 19, No. One author comments that Tajalli occurs when the seeker's humanity is annihilated so that divine attributes and light are experienced by the person. [52], For the next seven years, the Druze faced extreme persecution by the new caliph, al-Zahir, who wanted to eradicate the faith. [40], Christianity and Druze are Abrahamic religions that share a historical traditional connection with some major theological differences. Muhammad is regarded as the last prophet sent by God in Islam, and in the Druze faith, Muhammad is considered an important prophet of God, being among the seven prophets who appeared in different periods of history. Druze make pilgrimages to this site on the holiday of Ziyarat al-Nabi Shu'ayb. Both faiths give a prominent place to Jesus:[147][148] Jesus is the central figure of Christianity, and in the Druze faith, Jesus is considered an important prophet of God,[147][148] being among the seven prophets who appeared in different periods of history. (+1) 202-419-4372 | Media Inquiries. By 1018, al-Darazi had gathered around him partisans – "Darazites" – who believed that universal reason became incarnated in Adam at the beginning of the world, was then passed from him to the prophets, then into Ali and hence into his descendants, the Fatimid Caliphs. Under the military leadership of Sultan Pasha al-Atrash, the Druze provided much of the military force behind the Syrian Revolution of 1925–27. [219] Yet, the Jews and Druze lived isolated from each other, except in few mixed towns such as Deir al-Qamar and Peki'in. [121] In 2004, there were 102,000 Druze living in the country. Because of their fierce battles with the Crusaders, the Druzes earned the respect of the Sunni Muslim caliphs and thus gained important political powers. As early as the days of Saladin, and while the Ma'ans were still in complete control over southern Lebanon, the Shihab tribe, originally Hijaz Arabs, but later settled in Ḥawran, advanced from Ḥawran, in 1172, and settled in Wadi al-Taym at the foot of mount Hermon. [53] Others have speculated that the word comes from the Persian word Darazo (درز "bliss") or from Shaykh Hussayn ad-Darazī, who was one of the early converts to the faith. They are found in Syria, Lebanon and Israel.[155]. The Druze allow divorce, although it is discouraged; circumcision is not necessary; they cannot be reborn as non-Druze; those who purify and perfect their soul ascend to the stars upon death; when al-Hakim returns, all faithful Druze will join him in his march from China and on to conquer the world;[150] apostasy is forbidden;[151] they usually have religious services on Thursday evenings,[152] and follow Sunni Hanafi law on issues which their own faith has no particular rulings about.[153][154]. Pan-Arabism versus Pan-Islam – Where Do the Druze Fit? The soul embodies the mind and is responsible for transmigration and the character of oneself. John Esposito states that al-Hakim believed that "he was not only the divinely appointed religio-political leader, but also the cosmic intellect linking God with creation",[66] while others like Nissim Dana and Mordechai Nisan state that he is perceived as the manifestation and the reincarnation of God or presumably the image of God. Traditionally the Druze women have played an important role both socially and religiously inside the community. They live primarily in the Galilee and the Golan Heights, and are classified as a separate religious group, with their own courts and their own jurisdiction in matters such as marriage, divorce, and adoption.. Can you name the Seven Prophets of the Druze? Druze religion 5 prophets Druze - Wikipedi . [242], A 2008 study published on the genetic background of Druze communities in Israel showed highly heterogeneous parental origins. The Druze flag is combined from 5 colors which represent the 5 prophets of the Druze secret religion. [142][143][200][201][202] Within Islam, however, such a concept of theophany is a denial of monotheism. About six-in-ten Druze men included in our survey say they have served (45%) or currently are serving (15%) in the Israeli military. They are found primarily in Syria, Lebanon and Israel, with small communities in Jordan. [93], During the Ottoman–Habsburg War (1683–1699), Ahmad Ma'n collaborated in a rebellion against the Ottomans which extended beyond his death. But European intervention pressured the Turks to treat the Maronites more justly. [119] The second largest political party supported by Druze is the Lebanese Democratic Party led by Prince Talal Arslan, the son of Lebanese independence hero Emir Majid Arslan. A Druze cannot be reincarnated in the body of a non-Druze. After the assassination of Kamal Jumblatt on 16 March 1977, his son Walid Jumblatt took the leadership of the party and played an important role in preserving his father's legacy after winning the Mountain War and sustained the existence of the Druze community during the sectarian bloodshed that lasted until 1990. Religion and public policy Erasmus. (Fakhr ad Din's only surviving son, Husayn, lived the rest of his life as a court official in Constantinople.) [123] Today, thousands of Israeli Druze belong to "Druze Zionist" movements.[120]. In 1017, Hamza officially revealed the Druze faith and began to preach the Unitarian doctrine. The Druze considers their faith to be a new interpretation of the three monotheistic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. [131] Reincarnations occur instantly at one's death because there is an eternal duality of the body and the soul and it is impossible for the soul to exist without the body. Thus, God is perceived as the Lahut [the divine] who manifests His Light in the Station (Maqaam) of the Nasut [material realm] without the Nasut becoming Lahut. [227] Israeli Druze citizens serve in the Israel Defense Forces. [113][114][115], The Qalb Loze massacre was a reported massacre of Syrian Druze on 10 June 2015 in the village of Qalb Loze in Syria's northwestern Idlib Governorate in which 20–24 Druze were killed. 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